Difference between revisions from 2016/07/01 16:28 and 1999/11/30 00:00.
= Sound chip =



[From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_chip]


A **sound chip** is an [integrated circuit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit] (i.e. "chip") designed to produce [sound https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound]. It might be doing this through [digital https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_data], [analog https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_signal] or [mixed-mode https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixed-mode_integrated_circuit] [electronics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics]. Sound chips normally contain things like [oscillators https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_oscillator], [envelope https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envelope_waves] controllers, [samplers https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_signal], [filters https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_signal_processing] and [amplifiers https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_amplifier]. During the late 20th century, sound chips were widely used in [arcade game https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_game] [system boards https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board], [video game consoles https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console], [home computers https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_computer], and [PC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer] [sound cards https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_card].






== Programmable sound generators (PSG) ==





=== Atari  ===



 - [Atari TIA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_Interface_Adapter], combined sound and [graphics chip https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_display_controller], used in the [Atari 2600 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_2600] and [Atari 7800 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_7800] video game consoles.
 - [Atari POKEY https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_POKEY], used in [Atari 8-bit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_8-bit] home computers, the [Atari 5200 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_5200] console, and certain Atari 7800 cartridges.
 - [Atari AMY https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_AMY], intended for the 65XEM, but never released.



=== General Instrument ===



 - [General Instrument AY-3-8910 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Instrument_AY-3-8910], used in arcade boards ([DECO https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DECO_Cassette_System], [Taito Z80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Taito], [Konami Scramble https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Konami], [Irem M27 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Irem], [Konami 6809 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Konami], [Capcom Z80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Capcom]), computers ([Colour Genie https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colour_Genie], [Oric 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oric_1], [MSX https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSX], [Amstrad CPC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstrad_CPC], [ZX Spectrum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZX_Spectrum] with 128K RAM, [Elektor TVGC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektor_TV_Games_Computer] and [Mockingboard https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mockingboard]), and the [Intellivision https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellivision] home console.
 - [General Instrument SP0250 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Instrument_SP0256], [LPC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_predictive_coding] (linear predictive coding) [speech synthesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_synthesis] chip used in the [Sega G80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_G80] arcade system board.
 - [General Instrument SP0256 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Instrument_SP0256], LPC speech synthesis chip.



=== Konami ===



 - [Konami RC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RC_circuit], used in the [Konami Scramble https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Konami] and //[Gyruss https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyruss]// arcade system boards.
 - [Konami VRC6 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VRC6], used in certain Konami-produced [Famicom https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintendo_Entertainment_System] cartridges.



=== MOS Technology ===



 - [MOS Technology 6560/6561 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOS_Technology_VIC] "VIC", used in the [Commodore VIC-1001 and VIC-20 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_VIC-20].
 - [MOS Technology 6581/8580 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOS_Technology_SID] "SID", used in the [Commodore 64 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_64] and [Commodore 128 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_128].
 - [MOS Technology 7360/8360 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOS_Technology_TED] "TED", used in the [Commodore 16 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_16] and [Commodore Plus/4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_Plus/4].



=== Philips ===



 - [Philips SAA1099 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philips_SAA1099], used in the [SAM Coupé https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAM_Coup%C3%A9] and [Creative Music System https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Music_System] (also known as Game Blaster).



=== Ricoh ===



 - [Ricoh 2A03/2A07 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2A03], used in the [Nintendo Entertainment System https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintendo_Entertainment_System]/Famicom [home console https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_console] (hardware expandable) and the arcade game //[Punch-Out!! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch-Out!!_(arcade_game)]//



=== Sega ===



 - Sega Melody Generator, used in the [Sega G80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_G80] arcade system board.
 - [Sega PSG (SN76496) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_SN76496], used in the [Sega Z80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sega_arcade_system_boards#Sega_Z80], [Sega Zaxxon https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Zaxxon] and [System E https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_System] arcade boards, and the [Sega Master System https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Master_System] and [Mega Drive/Genesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mega_Drive] consoles.



=== Sunsoft ===



 - [Sunsoft 5B https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management_controller#FME-7] (derivative of [Yamaha YM2149F https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2149]), used in the Famicom cartridge //[Gimmick! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gimmick!]//



=== Texas Instruments ===



 - [Texas Instruments SN76477 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_SN76477], used in the //[Space Invaders https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Invaders]// arcade system board.
 - [Texas Instruments SN76489 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_SN76489] "DCSG", used in various arcade system boards, the [Sega SG-1000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SG-1000] console, and the [BBC Micro https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC_Micro], home computer Sharp MZ-800 and [Texas Instruments TI-99/4A https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_TI-99/4A] computers.
 - [Texas Instruments SN76489A https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_SN76489] "DCSG", used in the [ColecoVision https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ColecoVision], [Sega Master System https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_System] and [Mega Drive/Genesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mega_Drive] consoles, and the [Sega Game Gear https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Game_Gear] and [Pico https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Pico] [handheld game consoles https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Handheld_game_console].
 - [Texas Instruments SN76496 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Instruments_SN76496], used in the [Tandy 1000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandy_1000] computer.
 - TMS3615
 - TMS3617
 - TMS3630
 - TMS3631-RI104,105



=== [Yamaha https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_Corporation][[edit /w/index.php?title=Sound_chip&action=edit&section=11]] ===



 - [Yamaha YM2149 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2149] (based on [General Instrument AY-3-8910 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Instrument_AY-3-8910]), used in various arcade boards, and the [Atari ST https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_ST] computer.
 - Yamaha YM3439, used in Atari Falcon030 computer.



== Wavetable-lookup synthesis ==

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table-lookup_synthesis


Note: Wavetable-lookup synthesis chips are sometimes incorrectly referred as //wavetable synthesis//.



=== Atari ===



 - [Jerry https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_Jaguar#Technical_specifications], used in the [Atari Jaguar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_Jaguar]. Also supports FM synthesis and PCM ([sample-based synthesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample-based_synthesis]).



=== Hudson Soft ===



 - [Hudson Soft HuC6280 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_Soft_HuC6280], used in [NEC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEC]'s [PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboGrafx-16] console.



=== Konami ===



 - [Konami SCC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konami_SCC], used in certain arcade boards and game carts for the MSX.



=== Namco ===



 - Namco WSG (Waveform Sound Generator), used in several [Namco arcade https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Namco_games] system boards, including [Namco Pac-Man https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Pac-Man] and [Namco Galaga https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Galaga].
 - Namco 15xx (WSG), used in the [Namco Super Pac-Man https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Super_Pac-Man] arcade system board.
 - Namco 52xx (Audio Processor), used in the Namco Galaga and [Namco Pole Position https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Pole_Position] arcade system boards.
 - Namco 54xx (Audio Generator), used in the Namco Pole Position arcade system board.
 - Namco CUS30, used in the [Namco System 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_1], [Namco Thunder Ceptor https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Thunder_Ceptor] and [System 86 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_86] arcade boards.
 - [Namco 163 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management_controller#Namco_163], used in Namco-produced Famicom games.



== Frequency modulation synthesis (FM synth) ==


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_modulation_synthesis



=== Atari ===



 - Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis and PCM (sample-based synthesis).



=== ESS Tech ===



 - ESFM synthesizer, used in most ESS Tech sound chips, ES1868/69 being most common. Chip includes wavetable interface. Two modes, one "OPL2/3 compatible" and the other the native superset.



=== Konami ===



 - [Konami VRC7 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_management_controller#VRC7], a modified derivative of Yamaha's YM2413, used in the Famicom cartridge //[Lagrange Point https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrange_Point]//



=== Yamaha ===



 - [Yamaha YM2413 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2413] (a.k.a. OPLL), used in the Japanese Sega Master System, and in the MSX in MSX Music cartridges like the FM-PAC and internally in several Japanese models by [Panasonic https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panasonic], [Sony https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sony] and [Sanyo https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanyo]
 - [Yamaha YM2203 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2203] (a.k.a. OPN), used in some 80's arcade games and the [NEC PC-88 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEC_PC-88] and [PC-98 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEC_PC-98] computers
 - [Yamaha YM2151 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2151] (a.k.a. OPM), used in mid-80's to mid-90's arcade games (the most prolific FM chip used in arcades), the [Sharp X68000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X68000] computer, and the Yamaha SFG-01 and SFG-05 FM Sound Synthesizer Unit cartridges for the MSX
 - [Yamaha YM2608 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2608] (a.k.a. OPNA), used in the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 computers
 - [Yamaha YM2610 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2610] (a.k.a. OPNB), used in the [SNK Neo Geo https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo_Geo_(console)] console
 - [Yamaha YM2612 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2612] (a.k.a. OPN2), used in the Sega Mega Drive / Genesis console and [FM Towns https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_Towns] computer
 - [Yamaha YM3526 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM3526] (a.k.a. OPL)
 - [Yamaha Y8950 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_Y8950] (a.k.a. MSX-AUDIO, very similar to Yamaha YM3526), used in MSX-Audio cartridges for the MSX: Panasonic FS-CA1, [Toshiba https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toshiba] HX-MU900, and [Philips https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philips] NMS-1205
 - [Yamaha YM3812 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM3812] (a.k.a. OPL2), used in [AdLib https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdLib] and early [Sound Blaster https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_Blaster] [sound cards https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_card] for the [PC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC_compatible]
 - [Yamaha YMF262 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YMF262] (a.k.a. OPL3), used in Sound Blaster Pro 2.0 and later cards for the PC
 - [Yamaha YMF278 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YMF278] (a.k.a. OPL4), used in the [Moonsound https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moonsound] cartridge for the MSX computer
 - [Yamaha YMF288 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YMF288] (a.k.a. OPN3), used in the NEC PC-98 computer
 - [Yamaha YMF7xx https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YMF7xx] (Embedded audio chipset in some laptops and soundcards)



== Pulse-code modulation ==


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation



=== Atari ===



 - Jerry, used in the Atari Jaguar. Also supports FM and single-cycle wavetable-lookup synthesis.
 - SDMA, used in Atari Falcon030.



=== Drucegrove ===



 - Digitalker MM54104, a [DM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_modulation] (delta modulation) [DPCM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_pulse-code_modulation] (differential PCM) [speech synthesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_synthesis] chip used in the [Namco Galaxian https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_Galaxian] (//[King & Balloon https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_%26_Balloon]//) and //[Scorpion https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaccaria_(company)]// arcade system boards



=== Harris ===



 - HC-55516, a [CVSD https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuously_variable_slope_delta_modulation] (continuously variable slope delta modulation) [ADM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_modulation#Adaptive_delta_modulation] (adaptive delta modulation) [speech coding https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_coding] decoder used in the //[Red Alert https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Alert_(arcade)]//, //[Sinistar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinistar]// and [Midway Y Unit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midway_T_Unit]arcade system boards



=== MOS Technology ===



 - [MOS Technology 8364 "Paula" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Original_Amiga_chipset#Paula], used in the [Commodore https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_International] [Amiga https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiga] computer



=== Namco ===



 - [Namco C140 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_21], used in the [Namco System 21 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_21] arcade board
 - [Namco C352 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_22], used in the [Namco System 22 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namco_System_22] arcade board



=== National SemiConductor ===



 - LMC1992, used in Atari STE and Atari TT030



=== Oki ===



 - OKI MSM5205, [ADPCM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_differential_pulse-code_modulation] chip used in various arcade system boards ([Irem M-52 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Irem], [Data East Z80 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Data_East], [Capcom 68000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_system_board#Capcom]) and [NEC https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEC]'s [PC Engine CD-ROM²/TurboGrafx-CD https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboGrafx-CD] console
 - Oki MSM6258, used in Sharp's X68000 computer
 - [Oki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oki_Electric_Industry] [MSM6295 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSM6295]



=== Ricoh ===



 - [Ricoh RF5c68 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricoh_RF5c68], used in the [Fujitsu https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujitsu] [FM Towns https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_Towns] computer and the [Sega System 18 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_System_18] and [System 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_System_32] arcade boards



=== Sanyo ===



 - VLM5030 Speech Synthesizer, a [speech synthesis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_synthesis] chip used in the arcade game //Punch-Out!!//



=== Sega ===



 - [SegaPCM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Space_Harrier], used in the [Sega Space Harrier https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Space_Harrier], [Sega OutRun https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_OutRun], [X Board https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Board] and [Y Board https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_Board] arcade system boards
 - [Sega MultiPCM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_System_32], used in the [Sega System Multi 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_System_32], [Sega Model 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Model_1] and [Model 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Model_2] arcade boards



=== Sony ===


 - [Sony SPC700 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPC700], used in the [Super Nintendo Entertainment System https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Nintendo_Entertainment_System] console



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